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- Cervical (Neck)
The cervical spine is divided into seven sections, which are numbered C1—C7. Pain in the cervical area of the spine usually originates from trauma to any of these sections, caused by neck strain, pinched nerves, and herniated discs. Damage to the cervical spine can cause cervical degeneration (mostly in adults over the age of 60), degenerative disc disease, and flexion injuries such as simple wedge fractures and anterior subluxation.
- Thoracic (Upper Back)
The thoracic spine is divided into 12 sections numbered T1—T12. Misalignments of these sections can cause severe damage to the nervous system. Of the four areas of the spine the thoracic has the least mobility. Thoracic pain can be caused by over-activity and disc injury amongst other causes. Possible injuries to the thoracic include intervertebral joint sprain, thoracic muscle rupture, costovertebral joint disorders, thoracic Schuermann’s disease, and scoliosis.
- Lumbar (Lower Back)
Injuries to the lumbar are extremely common. They are caused by car accidents, sports activities, work injures, falls, and violence. Lumbar injuries are divided into two categories — low and high energy. Regarding car accidents, a low energy injury could be a fender bender that severely jars the spine. A high energy injury could be from a car accident that includes high impact collision with another car and the ejection of passengers. Some common injuries to the lumbar are lumbar Scheuermann’s disease, degenerative spondylolisthesis, disc herniations, spinal stenosis and scoliosis.
- Sacrum (Tailbone)
The sacrum is the lowest part of the spine. This area endures significant amounts of stress from twisting during common activities and from long periods of sitting. Strains on the sacrum can lead to injuries like sacroiliac joint dysfunction and coccydynia. For women, whose tailbones curve out and away from the spine, injury is more common than in men, whose tailbones curve in and tuck under the spine.