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Hip fractures occur when the upper portion of the femur is fractured, creating pain in the hip. This type of injury is often caused by falls and blows to the hip. Anyone with weakened hips is susceptible to hip fractures. Weakened hips can be caused by osteoporosis, cancer or other stress injuries. Anyone suffering from a hip fracture may experience pain in the groin, upper thigh, and while flexing or rotating the hip.
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) is a condition resulting from irregular formation of the hip. This can cause unwanted and painful friction due to the bones not fitting together correctly. This can also cause harm to the joint which can lead to osteoarthritis. There are three different forms of FAI:
- Pincer impingement is when extra bone grows out over the edge of the acetabulum (hip socket). A pincer can potentially cause harm to the labrum (cartilage lining inside the socket) by compressing it.
- Cam impingement is caused by a misshapen femoral head (the rounded part of the femur that fits into the socket). This prevents the femoral head from moving around efficiently within the socket, which can hinder the cartilage that lines the acetabulum.
- Combined impingement is a combination of both pincer and cam impingements.
Symptoms of FAI may include dull or sharp pain in the outer hip or the groin area, as well as pain while squatting and sitting.
Pelvic fractures are common among the elderly who have osteoporosis. Pelvic fractures can be caused by falls, contact sports and motor vehicle accidents. This type of fracture does not usually cause harm to internal organs or render the pelvis unstable. Pelvic fractures may lead to swelling, bruising, pain and people who experience this type of fracture should likely be taken to emergency services.
Inflammatory arthritis is usually the result of joint cartilage wearing away over time, leading to inflammation. There are three kinds of inflammatory arthritis:
- Rheumatoid arthritis: systematic immune disease affecting the several joints on the body.
- Ankylosing Spondylitis: prolonged inflammation of the spine and sacroiliac joints.
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: autoimmune disease where the body causes damage to itself, including the joints
Inflammatory arthritis may be accompanied by dull joint pain in the groin, outer hip and buttocks. Activity may increase pain. Osteoarthritis in the hip occurs when the cartilage on either the femoral head, or within the socket begins to thin. Osteoarthritis can be caused by heredity, age, obesity or injuries that cause tension in the cartilage. Osteoarthritis may cause stiffness and pain in the hip area. Prolonged osteoarthritis may lead to pain while moving as the cartilage continues to grow thinner.
Osteonecrosis is caused by a lack of blood supply to the hip joint. Without blood, the femoral head begins to deteriorate which can then cause the cartilage surrounding it to break down, leading to arthritis. This condition can be caused by hip dislocations, fractures, other injuries that harm the femoral head, alcoholism, corticosteroid medications, and other medical conditions. This condition may result in pain in the hip and buttock region and increased pain when standing and moving. Osteonecrosis usually progresses over a time span of a few months to a year.
Many muscles, including the rectus femoris, surround the hip bones and the hip joint. When these muscles are strained, discomfort results. Hip strains can be caused by a lack of stretching and warming up before physical activity. They can also be caused from overusing or overstretching the muscles. Hip strains may lead to pain, swelling and weakness in the area of the strained muscle.